Endnotes

1 Redesigning Trust: Blockchain for Supply Chains, World Economic Forum, 2019, https://www.weforum.org/projects/redesigning-trust

2 Redesigning Trust: Blockchain for Supply Chains, World Economic Forum, 2019, https://www.weforum.org/projects/redesigning-trust

3 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 1 – Introduction, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Introduction_to_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains.pdf

4 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 2 - Trustworthy Verification of Digital Identities, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Trustworthy_Verification_of_Digital_Identities_2019.pdf

5 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 3 - Public of Private Blockchains - Which One is Right for You?, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deploymentof_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains.pdf

6 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 4 - Protecting your Data, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deployment_of_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains_Part_4_Report.pdf

7 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 5 - A Framework for Blockchain Cybersecurity, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deployment_of_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains_Part_5.pdf

8 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain: Case Studies and Learnings from the United Arab Emirates, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deployment_of_Blockchain_Case_Studies_and_Learnings_from_the_United_Emirates.pdf

9 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 6 - A Framework for Blockchain Interoperability, World Economic Forum, 2020, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_A_Framework_for_Blockchain_Interoperability_2020.pdf

10 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 1 – Introduction, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Introduction_to_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains.pdf

11 Enterprise Ethereum Alliance, https://entethalliance.org/technical-documents/

12 Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies - Reference architecture, ISO, https://www.iso.org/standard/75093.html

13 Blockchain in Banking: While the interest is huge, challenges remain in for large scale adoption, Deloitte, 2017, https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/in/Documents/strategy/in-strategy-innovation-blockchain-in-banking-noexp.pdf

14 Jensen, Henrik, “Blockchain - the corporate weapon against disruption”, Medium, 2018, https://medium.com/@henrikhvidjensen/blockchain-the-corporate-weapon-against-disruption-5784adbeabb6

15 Jensen, Henrik, Blockchain - the corporate weapon against disruption, Medium, 2018, https://medium.com/@henrikhvidjensen/blockchain-the-corporate-weapon-against-disruption-5784adbeabb6

16 Blockchain Beyond the Hype, World Economic Forum, 2018, https://www.weforum.org/whitepapers/blockchain-beyond-the-hype

16 Building Value with Blockchain Technology: How to Evaluate Blockchain’s Benefits”, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Building_Value_with_Blockchain.pdf

16 ”These 11 questions will help you decide if blockchain is right for your business”, World Economic Forum, 2018, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/04/questions-blockchain-toolkit-right-for-business/

17 Redesigning Trust: Blockchain for Supply Chains, World Economic Forum, 2019, https://www.weforum.org/projects/redesigning-trust

18 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 1 – Introduction, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Introduction_to_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains.pdf

19 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 2 - Trustworthy Verification of Digital Identities, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Trustworthy_Verification_of_Digital_Identities_2019.pdf

20 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 3 - Public of Private Blockchains - Which One is Right for You?, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deploymentof_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains.pdf

21 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 4 - Protecting your Data, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deployment_of_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains_Part_4_Report.pdf

22 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 5 - A Framework for Blockchain Cybersecurity, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deployment_of_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains_Part_5.pdf

23 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain: Case Studies and Learnings from the United Arab Emirates, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deployment_of_Blockchain_Case_Studies_and_Learnings_from_the_United_Emirates.pdf

24 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 6 - A Framework for Blockchain Interoperability, World Economic Forum, 2020, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_A_Framework_for_Blockchain_Interoperability_2020.pdf

25 Blockchain Beyond the Hype, World Economic Forum, 2018, https://www.weforum.org/whitepapers/blockchain-beyond-the-hype

25 Building Value with Blockchain Technology: How to Evaluate Blockchain’s Benefits”, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Building_Value_with_Blockchain.pdf

25 ”These 11 questions will help you decide if blockchain is right for your business”, World Economic Forum, 2018, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/04/questions-blockchain-toolkit-right-for-business/

26 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 1 – Introduction, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Introduction_to_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains.pdf

27 Jensen, Henrik, ”Blockchain - the corporate weapon against disruption“, Medium, 2018, https://medium.com/@henrikhvidjensen/blockchain-the-corporate-weapon-against-disruption-5784adbeabb6

28 ”Blockchain Beyond the Hype“, World Economic Forum, 2018, https://www.weforum.org/whitepapers/blockchain-beyond-the-hype

29 Building Value with Blockchain Technology: How to Evaluate Blockchain’s Benefits, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Building_Value_with_Blockchain.pdf

30 These 11 questions will help you decide if blockchain is right for your business, World Economic Forum, 2018, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/04/questions-blockchain-toolkit-right-for-business/

31 Wood, Miranda, ”Repsol contracts Finboot for bclockchain oil certification project”, Ledger Insights, 2019, https://www.ledgerinsights.com/blockchain-repsol-contracts-finboot-oil-certification/

32 Veale, James, SAP and SUSTAIN launch blockchain Palm Oil traceability initiative, https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/sap-sustain-launch-blockchain-palm-oil-traceability-initiative-veale

33 Trace Labs and OneAgrix Launch Blockchain-Based Halal Certification System, Medium, 2019, https://medium.com/origintrail/trace-labs-and-oneagrix-launch-blockchain-based-halal-certification-system-45a3bcfa404e

34 Wood, Miranda, ”Repsol contracts Finboot for blockchain oil certification project”, Ledger Insights, 2019, https://www.ledgerinsights.com/blockchain-repsol-contracts-finboot-oil-certification/

35 This Figure is adopted from the World Economic Forum white paper Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 6 – A framework for blockchain interoperability done in collaboration with Deloitte

36 This Figure is adopted from the World Economic Forum white paper Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 6 – A framework for blockchain interoperability done in collaboration with Deloitte

37 Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Collaborative Advantage: The Art of Alliances, Harvard Business Review, 1994, https://hbr.org/1994/07/collaborative-advantage-the-art-of-alliances

38 SAP, Bumble Bee Foods and SAP Create Blockchain to Track Fresh Fish from Ocean to Table, YouTube, May 11 2019. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bq8fp7_I4k

39 Bumble Bee Foods and SAP Create Blockchain to Track Fresh Fish from Ocean to Table, SAP, 2019. https://news.sap.com/2019/03/bumble-bee-foods-sap-create-blockchain-track-fish/?source=social-global-sap+digital+business+services-youtube-audienceengagement-dbs-services-scp-spr-2182044493&campaigncode=CRM-YA19-VIN-SOCIALM

40 Difference between consortium and joint ventures, Malescu Law, 2019, https://malesculaw.com/difference-consortium-joint-ventures/

41 Port News: Steering in Information Waves, http://en.portnews.ru/news/290245/

42 Trace Labs and OneAgrix Launch Blockchain-Based Halal Certification System, Medium, 2019, https://medium.com/origintrail/trace-labs-and-oneagrix-launch-blockchain-based-halal-certification-system-45a3bcfa404e

43 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 1 – Introduction, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Introduction_to_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains.pdf

44 ”Peers”, Hyperledger Fabric, https://hyperledger-fabric.readthedocs.io/en/release-2.0/peers/peers.html

45 Hyperledger - Chapter 6 - Hyperledger Fabric Components - Technical Context, Medium, 2018, https://medium.com/swlh/hyperledger-chapter-6-hyperledger-fabric-components-technical-context-767985f605dd

46 Muma, Shawn, ”Your Blockchain Project is Doomed If You Don’t Ask These Five Questions”, SupplyChain Management Review, February 7 2020, https://www.scmr.com/article/your_blockchain_project_is_doomed_if_you_dont_ask_these_five_questions

47 Clary, “Software is meant to be free. A brief history of open source”, hackernoon, January 2019, https://hackernoon.com/software-is-meant-to-be-free-a-brief-history-of-open-source-892d29e803a0

48 Nakamoto, Satoshi, Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, Bitcoin.org, 2008, https://www.bitcoin.com/bitcoin.pdf

49 “Deloitte’s 2019 Global Blockchain Survey: Blockchain gets down to business”, Deloitte, 2019, https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/se/Documents/risk/DI_2019-global-blockchain-survey.pdf

50 Joseph, Susan, “Do Blockchains and Consortia Go Together like PB & J”, Medium, April 1 2019, https://medium.com/@SusanJoseph1786/do-blockchains-and-consortia-go-together-like-pb-j-c70879c0601

51 R3 Website, https://www.r3.com/history/

52 ”The Right Way to do Blockchain Consortiums”, Coindesk, May 3 2019, https://www.coindesk.com/the-right-way-to-do-blockchain-consortiums?amp=1

53 Lohchab, Himanshi, ”Blockchain fight against spam may not be landslide victory“, Economic Times, November 25 2019, https://m.economictimes.com/industry/telecom/telecom-news/blockchain-fight-against-spam-may-not-be-landslide-victory/amp_articleshow/72193464.cms

54 The Institutes’ Risk and Insurance Knowledge group website, https://www.theinstitutes.org/guide/riskstream-collaborative

55 Anwar, Hasib, ”Contour Blockchain (Voltron): A Milestone for Trade Finance“, 101 Blockchains, February 2 2020, https://101blockchains.com/contour-blockchain/amp/

56 Neuburger, Jeffrey, ”Supply Chain Blockchain Initiative Receives Federal Antitrust Exemption”, The National Law Review, February 11 2020, https://www.natlawreview.com/article/supply-chain-blockchain-initiative-receives-federal-antitrust-exemption?amp

57 Do Blockchains and Consortia Go Together like PB & J”, Medium, April 1 2019, https://medium.com/@SusanJoseph1786/do-blockchains-and-consortia-go-together-like-pb-j-c70879c0601

58 “Private International Law Aspects of Smart Derivatives Contracts Utilizing Distributed Ledger Technology”, 2020, available at https://www.isda.org/a/4RJTE/Private-International-Law-Aspects-of-Smart-Derivatives-Contracts-Utilizing-DLT.pdf

59 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains, Part 2: Trustworthy Verification of Digital Identities, World Economic Forum, 2019. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Trustworthy_Verification_of_Digital_Identities_2019.pdf

60 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains, Part 2: Trustworthy Verification of Digital Identities, World Economic Forum, 2019. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Trustworthy_Verification_of_Digital_Identities_2019.pdf

61 Identity in a Digital World: A new chapter in the social contract, World Economic Forum, 2019. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_INSIGHT_REPORT_Digital%20Identity.pdf

62 Proof of existence “covers any electronic information which can document that an entity is a legal entity under a specific jurisdiction.” p.8 World Economic Forum, Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains, Part 2: Trustworthy Verification of Digital Identities, 2019. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Trustworthy_Verification_of_Digital_Identities_2019.pdf (accessed 12/20/2019).

63 Identity in a Digital World: A new chapter in the social contract, World Economic Forum, 2019. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_INSIGHT_REPORT_Digital%20Identity.pdf

64 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains, Part 2: Trustworthy Verification of Digital Identities, World Economic Forum, 2019. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Trustworthy_Verification_of_Digital_Identities_2019.pdf

65 https://vonx.io/

66 National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST Special Publication 800-63 - Revision 3, 2019. https://pages.nist.gov/800-63-3/sp800-63-3.html (accessed 12/20/2019).

67 Blockchain is not a magic bullet for security. Can it be trusted? World Economic Forum, 2019. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/08/blockchain-security-trust/

68 Morrow, Susan, ”When identity data eclipses digital identity”, CSO, August 23 2017, https://www.csoonline.com/article/3217708/when-identity-data-eclipses-digital-identity.html

69 Data Minimalism, Fjord, 2018, https://trends19.fjordnet.com/trends/data-minimalism

70 Cavoukian, Ann Privacy by Design – The 7 Foundational Principles, https://www.ryerson.ca/content/dam/pbdce/seven-foundational-principles/The-7-Foundational-Principles.pdf

71 Jensen, Henrik, Blockchain Do Not Add Additional Security - Blockchain Adds Distributed Trust, 2018, https://medium.com/@henrikhvidjensen/blockchain-do-not-add-additional-security-blockchain-adds-distributed-trust-132991b6e57e

72 Wood, Miranda, Digital Bazaar, GS1 US Working on Digital Identities For Supply Chain, Ledger Insights, 2019, https://www.ledgerinsights.com/digital-bazaar-gs1-digital-identities-for-supply-chain/

73 Trust Your Supplier website, https://www.trustyoursupplier.com/

74 DTCC and Accenture Unveil Governance Operating Model to Manage Risks and Promote Safety Across Distributed Ledger Technology Landscape, 2019. https://newsroom.accenture.com/news/dtcc-and-accenture-unveil-governance-operating-model-to-manage-risks-and-promote-safety-across-distributed-ledger-technology-landscape.htm?_ga=2.21015419.1303829891.1576763496-566277452.1570458062

75 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 6 - A Framework for Blockchain Interoperability, World Economic Forum, 2020, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_A_Framework_for_Blockchain_Interoperability_2020.pdf

76 ISO. (2020). ISO/CD 23257.2 Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies — Reference architecture. Retrieved 01 09, 2020, from https://www.iso.org/standard/75093.html?browse=tc

77 Deloitte. (2017). Figure 2: Blockchain in banking. Retrieved 01 09, 2020, from https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/in/Documents/strategy/in-strategy-innovation-blockchain-in-banking-noexp.pdf

78 BIA, 2019. BIA. [Online] Available at: https://bialliance.io/ [Accessed 09 01 2020].

79 BiTA, 2019. BiTA. [Online] Available at: https://www.bita.studio/standards [Accessed 09 01 2020].

80 BRI, 2018. BRI. [Online] Available at: https://www.beltroad-initiative.com/ [Accessed 09 01 2020].

81 BSI, 2019. BSI. [Online] Available at: https://www.bsigroup.com/en-MY/About-BSI/Media-Centre/press-releases/2019-press-releases/january-2019/bsi-partners-with-origintrail-to-develop-blockchain-enabled-solutions/[Accessed 09 01 2020].

82 CESI, 2019. CESI. [Online] Available at: http://www.cc.cesi.cn/english.aspx [Accessed 09 01 2020].

83 DCSA, 2019. DCSA. [Online] Available at: https://www.dcsa.org/ [Accessed 09 01 2020].

84 EBP, 2019. EBP. [Online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/news/european-countries-join-blockchain-partnership [Accessed 09 01 2020].

85 EEA, 2019. EEA. [Online] Available at: https://entethalliance.org/ [Accessed 09 01 2020].

86 GS1, 2019. GS1 Blockchain Standards. [Online] Available at: https://www.gs1.org/standards/blockchain [Accessed 09 01 2020].

87 IEEE, 2019. IEEE. [Online] Available at: https://blockchain.ieee.org/ [Accessed 09 01 2020].

88 ISO/TC307, 2019. ISO. [Online] Available at: https://www.iso.org/committee/6266604/x/catalogue/p/0/u/1/w/0/d/0 [Accessed 09 01 2020].

89 MOBI, 2020. MOBI. [Online] Available at: https://dlt.mobi/ [Accessed 17 02 2020].

90 EU Blockchain Observatory and Forum. (2019, september). www.eublockchainforum.eu. Retrieved from www.eublockchainforum.eu: https://www.eublockchainforum.eu/sites/default/files/reports/report_legal_v1.0.pdf

91 Hedera. (2019). Hedera: A Public Hashgraph Network & Governing Council. Retrieved 01 09, 2020, from https://www.hedera.com/hh-whitepaper-v2.0-17Sep19.pdf

92 Deloitte. (2019). So, you've decided to join a blockchain consortium. Retrieved from https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/us/Documents/technology/us-cons-blockchain-consortium.pdf

93 “Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 3 – Which one is right for you: Public or Prive”, World Economic Forum, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deploymentof_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains.pdf

94 “Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 4 – Protecting Your Data, White Paper”, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deployment_of_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains_Part_4_Report.pdf

95 Ten troublecome blockchain terms: What’s accurate? What’s not? Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, 2019, https://www.minneapolisfed.org/~/media/files/news_events/bank-updates/2019-02/ten-troublesome-blockchain-terms.pdf?la=en

96 ”Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 4 – Protecting your Data”, World Economic Forum, 2019, https://www.weforum.org/whitepapers/inclusive-deployment-of-blockchain-for-supply-chains-part-4-protecting-your-data

97 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains: Part 4 – Protecting your Data, World Economic Forum, 2019, https://www.weforum.org/whitepapers/inclusive-deployment-of-blockchain-for-supply-chains-part-4-protecting-your-data

98 ”Blockchain and the GDPR”, European Union Blockchain Observatory and Forum, 2018, https://www.eublockchainforum.eu/sites/default/files/reports/20181016_report_gdpr.pdf

99 ”Blockchain and the General Data Protection Regulation”, European Parliament Research Service, 2019, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2019/634445/EPRS_STU(2019)634445_EN.pdf

100 Blockchain et RGPD : quelles solutions pour un usage responsable en présence de données personnelles?, CNIL, 2018, available at : https://www.cnil.fr/sites/default/files/atoms/files/la_blockchain.pdf.

101 Supra CNIL 2018.

102 The Right to be Forgotten Meets the Immutable – A Practical Guide to GDPR-Compliant Blockchain Solutions, The Center for Global Enterprise, Cravath, Swaine & Moore, DSCI and Slaughter and May, 2019, available at: https://www.cravath.com/files/Uploads/Documents/Publications/3898415_1.pdf.

103 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains, Part 5 – A Framework for Blockchain Cybersecurity”, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deployment_of_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains_Part_5.pdf

104 Inclusive Deployment of Blockchain for Supply Chains, Part 5 – A Framework for Blockchain Cybersecurity”, World Economic Forum, 2019, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Inclusive_Deployment_of_Blockchain_for_Supply_Chains_Part_5.pdf

105 ”Guide for Conducting Risk Assessments”, NIST, 2012, https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-30r1.pdf

106 Systems Security Engineering: Considerations for a Multidisciplinary Approach in the Engineering of Trustworthy Secure Systems, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2016, https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-30r1.pdf

107 Some examples:


CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional, https://www.isc2.org/Certifications/CISSP


CEH: Certified Ethical Hacker, https://www.eccouncil.org/programs/certified-ethical-hacker-ceh/


CISM: Certified Information Security Manager, https://www.isaca.org/credentialing/cism


CompTIA Security+, https://www.comptia.org/certifications/security


CISA: Certified Information Security Auditor, https://www.isaca.org/credentialing/cisa


GIAC Security Essentials (GSEC) certification, https://www.giac.org/certification/security-essentials-gsec

108 “eGovernment Domain Discussion”, 2019, https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/cefact/cf_forums/2019_Geneva/PPT_eGov-Domain.pdf

109 William Bible, Jon Raphael, Matthew Riviello, Peter Taylor, Iliana Oris Valiente, “Blockchain Technology and Its Potential Impact on the Audit and Assurance Profession,”, 2017, https://www.aicpa.org/content/dam/aicpa/interestareas/frc/assuranceadvisoryservices/downloadabledocuments/blockchain-technology-and-its-potential-impact-on-the-audit-and-assurance-profession.pdf

110 Source for the reference risk management framework:

111 ISO/IEC 2700:2018

112 NIST SP 800-128

113 The Book of Jargon: Cryptocurrency & Blockchain Technology, Latham & Watkins, https://www.lw.com/bookofjargon-apps/boj-CryptocurrencyandBlockchain

114 “What is Endpoint Security? Data Protection 101”, Digital Guardian, https://digitalguardian.com/blog/what-endpoint-security-data-protection-101

115 “What Is the Fourth Industrial Revolution?” Salesforce, https://www.salesforce.com/blog/2018/12/what-is-the-fourth-industrial-revolution-4IR.html

116 www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary

117 Penetration Testing: The Third Part Hacker, SANS, 2006, https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/testing/paper/264